Pleurocarpous Mosses: Systematics and Evolution (Systematics Association Special Volumes)
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Other features such as shape, size and precise location of the papillae are virtually impossible to assess under light microscopy, and, to our knowledge, there have been no scanning electron microscopy SEM studies characterizing papillae diversity in the Pilotrichaceae. In acrocarpous mosses, such studies are more common, for example, in the Fissidentaceae Belin et al.
In such studies, SEM has revealed important taxonomic features, such as papillae shape, size and origin. Current observations of papillae within Pilotrichaceae are mostly restricted to presence or absence, number per cell unipapillose or pluripapillose and location on the leaf apex or base. In the present study, we use SEM to investigate further papillae development and morphology across genera in Pilotrichaceae and a published phylogeny Buck et al.
We sampled at least two species of every papillose genus of the Pilotrichaceae. For Hypnella diversifolia Mitt. Jaeger, three specimens were sampled because the material is readily accessible in herbaria in Brazil. Two species of Cyclodictyon Mitt. We also investigated Hypnella pilifera Hook. Jaeger, although it was not sampled in Buck et al. Overall, we studied the following species and specimens: Callicostella colombica R. Williams Colombia, Churchill et al. Brazil, Soares; no. Surinam, Allen; no. Kuntze Panama, Folsom; no.
Jaeger Puerto Rico, Reese; no. Jaeger Ecuador, Steere; no. Jaeger Colombia, Churchill et al. Jaeger, Costa Rica, Crosby; no.
Detholiad o Gyhoeddiadau
Guadeloupe, Duss; no. Jaeger Colombia, Ramos et al. Preparation of material. For each plant, lateral and dorsal leaves were taken from branches. As in the pleurocarps, the branches are always generating new leaves, so they were removed from the tip younger leaves all the way to the base older leaves. After drying, leaves were mounted on stubs and sputter-coated with gold and gold-palladium layers using two sputter coaters: a Hummer 6. The sputter-coated specimens were kept in a dessicator containing silica gel before SEM visualization. All cell measurements were taken from mature dorsal and lateral leaves, and at least 10 measurements of papilla dimensions were made for each specimen.
Twenty-five papillose cells for each individual were also measured under SEM Tab.
- Morphology and development of leaf papillae in the Pilotrichaceae?
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In the Pilotrichaceae genera evaluated, papillae were found only on abaxial leaf surfaces. Basipetal papilla development along the leaf was observed in all species, with younger papillae at the leaf base and mature papillae in the apical region. In addition, the papillae remained prominent even when cells collapsed due to specimen preparation, suggesting that papillae in Pilotrichaceae are solid and created by thickening of cell walls. Pluripapillose taxa had cells that were five times longer than they were wide, whereas those of the unipapillose taxa were irregularly isodiametric Tab.
Seven distinct kinds of mature papillae occur and can be referred to as cylindrical, denticulate, filiform, forked, rounded, semi-conical and stellate Fig. These types can be distinguished as follows:. Cylindrical papillae are simple not branched protuberances that are elongate and acute, 1. These papillae have "striae" that are vertical in relation to the papilla length and occur as singletons at the geometric center of the cell Fig.
This type was observed in the majority of mature leaf cells on any given leaf. This kind of papilla was observed only in Callicostellopsis meridensis Fig. These papillae have "striae" that are twisted in relation to the papilla length. Four to five such papillae typically occur on a single cell, and are distributed regularly along the axis of the cell. They are observed in the majority of mature cells on any given leaf.
When young, this type is a small outgrowth, with the same diameter throughout but shorter than mature papilla. This kind of papilla was observed only in Hypnella pilifera Fig. These papillae are smooth.
Ten such papillae occur per cell and are irregularly distributed along the axis. Young papillae are wider but shorter than mature papillae. This kind of papilla was observed in Pilotrichidium antillarum and P. However, in the former, papillae were observed only on the apical cells, whereas in the latter, they were observed on all leaf cells Fig. These papillae have "striae" that are vertical in relation to the papilla length, typically five per cell, regularly distributed along the cell axis of the majority of mature leaf cells on any given leaf.
There are morphological changes during maturation; the papillae start out as simple, unbranched outgrowths Fig. This kind of papilla was observed only in Hypnella diversifolia Fig. These papillae have "striae" that are vertical in relation to the papilla length. Three to five papillae are regularly distributed along the cell axis of the majority of mature cells in a leaf. These papillae also undergo morphological changes during their development; they start out as simple outgrowths that later grow branches. This kind of papilla was observed only in Hypnella pallescens Fig.
Semi-conical papillae are simple not branched , ca. These papillae have "striae" that are vertical in relation to the papilla length and occur on the majority of mature cells, always in the center of the cell.
When young, they are small outgrowths, with the same diameter but shorter than mature papillae. This kind of papilla was observed only in Callicostella pallida Fig. Denticulate papillae are simple not branched but with short acute protuberances, giving the cell a toothed appearance. The papilla are ca. These papillae have "striae" that are regular in relation to the papilla length.
There are two per cell on the apical cells of the limbidium only, forming a denticulate margin. Although phylogenetic inferences based ferences and associated morphological characters, on the combined matrix resolved a well-supported particularly those of gametophytic reduction, are backbone phylogeny of early diverging land plant prone to convergent evolution between and some- lineages, the position of Takakia among the mosses times within southern and northern hemisphere remained uncertain and was largely dependent on the groups. Strong conflict between maximum like- tionships among the haplolepideous mosses Dicra- lihood and parsimony topologies may have been due nidae , the second largest lineage of the Bryopsida, are to long-branch attraction between highly isolated still poorly studied.
In the paper based on their lineages, and thus the first splits in the phylogenetic symposium contribution, Stech et al. Strategies necessity of combining multiple genomic regions for to achieve a well-supported phylogeny of the Dicra- phylogenetic reconstruction. These key issues were nidae are discussed, this being urgently required for studies of character evolution and genomic research.
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Email: shuttu utu. Funariidae , haplolepid- information to reliably resolve relationships between eous species such as Ceratodon purpureus Hedw. Ignatov et al. In their symposium publication, Hut- points for genomic research in bryophytes e. This reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the will be of considerable benefit in the future for the Hypnales. Their topology supports monophyly of development of tools for phylogenetic inference in the the Hypnales and highlights polyphyly and the need Dicranidae and mosses in general.
Results are discussed in the order of the early diverging diplolepideous-alternate light of earlier phylogenetic inferences and the fossil lineages Splachnales, Bartramiales, and Hedwigiales record. Topology tests were able to Together with recent contributions on the Sphag- reject alternative placements of the Orthotrichales, nopsida Shaw et al. Similarly, ; Wahrmund et al.
Quandt and co-authors, the Orthotrichales and pleurocarpous mosses sensu lato. It is The two final contributions addressed relationships hoped that these will provide a key resource for among and within the two largest pleurocarp clades, bryologists of all specialities, as well as a reference the Hookeriales and Hypnales. The position of the point for others interested in the diversity of this predominantly southern hemispheric Hookeriales important and charismatic group of land plants. Phylogenetic inferences have repeat- References edly confirmed the monophyly of the Hookeriales Bell, N.
A morpho-molecular classification of the mosses (Bryophyta)_图文_百度文库
Rooting the Polytrichopsida: the phylogenetic position of Atrichopsis and the independent origin s. Buck et al. In: H. Baki, further evaluation of evolutionary trends within the eds. Bryology in the new Millennium. Kuala Lumpur: group. Pokorny et al. Bell, N.